First Aid

Injuries that are typically anticipated in a disaster are bleeding due to cuts, fractures, and burns.

It is useful, therefore, to know how to give basic first aid.

In case of bleeding

Put on gloves or cover your hands with plastic bags to prevent infecting the patient.

Substitutes for gloves

  • Plastic bags
  • Cellophane wrap

Stop the bleeding.

The direct pressure method

Apply strong pressure directly to the wound using a clean piece of gauze or a handkerchief.

The indirect pressure method

Use a handkerchief and apply pressure to the artery at a point closer to the heart than the wound.

In case of a fracture

Splints should brace the fracture from the inside and outside (splints should be longer than the distance between the joints on either side of the fracture.)

Other things that can be used as splints

  • Newspapers
  • Magazines
  • Cardboard
  • Umbrellas

Stabilize the joints on either side of the fracture.

Other things that can be used to stabilize the joints

  • Handkerchiefs
  • Towels
  • Neckties

Put the arm in a sling.

Other things that can be used to put the arm in a sling

  • Plastic shopping bag
  • Scarf
  • Belt

In case of a burns

First, cool the wound as soon as possible by holding it under clean running water (such as from a faucet) for 10-30 minutes.

If the burn is under a layer of cloth, do not attempt to peel the cloth off. Leave the cloth as it is and cool the wound as soon as possible by holding it under clean running water for 10-30 minutes.

After cooling, place a clean piece of gauze or towel over the wound and get to a first-aid station. A coolant or a plastic bag filled with ice wrapped with a towel, helps alleviate the pain.

Note

Blisters serve to protect the wound, so be careful not to break them.

Exercise caution if soaking the wound directly in ice water or if directly applying ice to it, as this could cause frostbite.

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